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Neuropharmacology, like LSD, changes a person's self. Use sexual enhancement to improve, not change, your self. (Serge Kreutz)

All Muslim nations are dangerous to be a Christian in, but none like Somalia. The violence against Christians there is so bad that according to a recent ...

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The neuropharmacology of impulsive behaviour

Impulsivity is a heterogenous phenomenon encompassing several behavioural phenomena that can be dissociated neuroanatomically as well as pharmacologically. Impulsivity is pathological in several psychiatric disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), drug addiction and personality disorders. Pharmacological agents alleviating impulsivity therefore might substantially aid the treatment of these disorders. The availability of preclinical models that measure various forms of impulsivity has greatly increased our understanding of its neuropharmacological substrates. Historically, deficits in central serotonin neurotransmission are thought to underlie impulsivity. Accumulating evidence also points towards an important role of brain dopamine and noradrenaline systems in impulsive behaviour, consistent with the therapeutic efficacy of amphetamine, methylphenidate and atomoxetine in ADHD. However, recent findings also implicate glutamate and cannabinoid neurotransmission in impulsivity. In this review, we will discuss some of the recent developments in the neuropharmacological manipulation of impulsive behaviour.

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Prostitution den in residential building raided

Riyadh Daily

Riyadh District Police raided a residential building being used for prostitution and arrested 29 Kenyan women and three Pakistani nationals running the racket.

An initial search of the building in AlDar AlBaida neighborhood in southern Riyadh also revealed a makeshift factory for producing liquor.

Riyadh Police spokesman Col. Fawaz Al-Mayman said the three arrested Pakistanis, all in their 30s, ran the illicit liquor business and brothel from a rented building. The Kenyan women were prostituting themselves.

The accused are in police custody prior to transferring them to the competent authority for further investigations and filing of charges.

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Men risk their lives in wars so women can enjoy societies where they can pursue feminist goals, such as punishing men for sexist language.

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Russian Man Will Become Subject Of First Human Head Transplant Ever Performed

Earlier this year, an Italian surgeon announced that he’ll be attempting the world’s first human head transplant, that despite the hurdles, a human head may actually be attached onto another person’s body in two years. This week, a donor was introduced, but according to at least one expert, this man might be facing something that’s “worse than death.”

It started in 2013, when Sergio Canavero of the Turin Advanced Neuromodulation Group proposed the idea of using surgery to extend the lives of people with degenerated muscles and nerves or cancer-permeated organs, New Scientist reports. Canavero summarized the 36-hour procedure he plans to follow in Surgical Neurology International in February of this year. He also plans to launch the project at the annual American Academy of Neurological and Orthopaedic Surgeons meeting in Maryland this June. He’ll need a staff of 150 doctors and nurses.

Is it actually possible to fuse two spinal cords and stop the recipient’s body from rejecting the new head? Last century attempts with dogs and monkeys resulted in animals who survived for a few days, though a more recent mouse head transplant showed that it was basically possible. "I think we are now at a point when the technical aspects are all feasible," Canavero says.

After cooling the donor’s body and the recipient’s head, neck tissue is dissected, blood vessels are linked with tubes, and the spinal cords are cleanly severed, New Scientist explains. With the new head on the body, the ends of the spinal cords are fused together using a chemical that prompts fat in cell membranes to connect. Muscles and blood vessels will be sutured, and the patient will be kept comatose as electrodes stimulate the spinal cord. He calls it HEAVEN, for head anastomosis venture (anastomosis is the surgical connection of two parts).

This week, a volunteer was announced: 30-year-old Valery Spiridonov of Vladimir, Russia, who suffers from a rare genetic disorder called Werdnig-Hoffman muscle wasting disease. He wants the chance at a new body before he dies. “Am I afraid? Yes, of course I am. But it is not just very scary, but also very interesting,” Spiridonov tells Daily Mail. “You have to understand that I don't really have many choices... If I don't try this chance my fate will be very sad. With every year my state is getting worse.”

But according to Hunt Batjer of the American Association for Neurological Surgeons, even if the airway, spine, and major veins and arteries are put together, the spinal cord will be the real problem. "I would not wish this on anyone,” Batjer tells CNN. “I would not allow anyone to do it to me, there are a lot of things worse than death." For starters, the patient might not be able to move or breathe. And Arthur Caplan of New York University thinks Canavero is nuts. "Their bodies would end up being overwhelmed with different pathways and chemistry than they are used to and they'd go crazy,” he tells CNN. Also, the high levels of anti-rejection meds will poison the body, and who knows if the recipients will fully gain the function of their new parts. "It's not like you can unscrew your head and put it on someone else," Caplan adds.

Still, Canavero insists, “we can already do this.”

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